Immediate Relative Categories
The U.S. immigration system has two major categories of family-based immigrants: immediate relatives and family preference. If a U.S. citizen or permanent resident petitions a foreign family member, the immigrant will fall into one of these two categories. The categories define the type of relationship that the immigrant has with the U.S. sponsor, and to a large extent, the priority that the immigrant will receive in obtaining a green card. The immediate relative categories are the most desirable.
Advantage for Immediate Relative Categories
The immediate relative category has special immigration priority. The immigrants in this category do not have to wait in line for a visa number to become available for them to immigrate because there are an unlimited number of visas available to immediate relatives. Certain bars to adjustment do not apply to the IR category. This is a significant benefit for an intending immigrant who overstays a visa or works in the U.S. without authorization.
On the other hand, family preference categories do have a wait associated with them. There is a limited number of visas for the preference categories. Therefore, waits can last from six months to as much as 20 years.
Immediate Relative Categories Available
There are only a few immediate relative categories available. They are reserved for the spouse, unmarried children and parents of U.S. citizens. The specific categories are:
Spouse of a U.S. citizen
Unmarried child (under 21 years of age) of a U.S. citizen
Orphan adopted abroad by a U.S. citizen
Orphan to be adopted in the United States by a U.S. citizen
Parent of a U.S. citizen (who is at least 21 years old)
If you do not fit one of these categories, you may fit into the family preference categories.
Establishing an Immediate Relative Relationship
The family-based immigration process generally begins with the U.S. citizen or permanent resident sponsor filing Form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative. The I-130 petition establishes an eligible relationship and is a request for a visa number.
There is an exception. U.S. citizens can sponsor a foreign fiancé to come to the United States for the purpose of marriage. The U.S. citizen starts this process by filing Form I-129F, Petition for Alien Fiancé. If approved, the foreign fiancé receives a non-immigrant fiancé visa (K-1).
Immediate Relative Categories Not in the Visa Bulletin
You may have heard of the visa bulletin. It’s a monthly list of priority dates closely watched by many individuals waiting to immigrate to the United States. Immediate relatives do not need to worry about the visa bulletin. As mentioned previously, there is an unlimited number of visas available to immediate relatives. So there is no “waiting in line” or monitoring the visa bulletin.
Some or all of the adjustment bars (INA 245 (c)) do not apply to immediate relatives of U.S. citizens. Generally, foreign nationals must be in a lawful status in order to adjust status to permanent resident. In other words, a visa overstay can result in a denial. Likewise, unauthorized employment in the U.S. is a bar to adjustment. If the foreign national has ever engaged in unauthorized employment, whether before or after filing an adjustment application, it can result in a denial.
There is an exception for immediate relatives. Applicants in the IR category may successfully apply for a green card with these violations. An adjustment applicant applying as an immediate relative may be eligible to file Form I-485 (adjustment of status application) even if he or she:
- Is now employed or has ever been employed in the United States without authorization;
- Is not in lawful immigration status on the date he or she files the adjustment application;
- Has ever failed to continuously maintain a lawful status since entry into the United States;
- Has ever violated the terms of his or her nonimmigrant status.